If a dispute arises
In disputes between different service providers or between service providers and consumers, legal review usually takes place in public court.
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In cases concerning e.g. debts, agreements, rent and damage claims, the review is initiated by a party, called the plaintiff, filing a summons application with the district court. The summons application is normally filed at the district court in the city where the counter party, called the respondent, is resident.
In the summons application, you should make a motion, in other words say what you demand the counter party do. You also have to pay a fee to apply for a summons at the district court.
Once the summons application has been received by the district court, the respondent is served the summons application and given the opportunity to submit, in writing, his/her position on the motion made in the summons application.
Once the response has been received by the court, the preparations in the case normally continue with the parties being called to a pre-trial conference that aims to further clarify what the case is about and the parties' positions.
In cases that concern e.g. debts, agreements, rent and damage claims, the court can declare a so-called default judgement if no response is filed, which means that the respondent in the case loses the case. The same is true if a party does not contribute to the process or does not attend the main proceedings.
When the preparations are complete, the district court convenes the trial, calling the parties, witnesses, etc. In cases that concern e.g. debts, agreements, rent and damage claims, the court usually consists of three judges.
Deliberation and judgement
After concluded proceedings, the judges deliberate on how they will judge in the case. The judges take a position on what has come forth in the main proceedings and the judgement may only apply to what the parties have claimed. The party that loses the case must usually pay the counter party's court costs. However, a party that wants to be reimbursed for his/her court costs must especially request this during the main proceedings.
In some cases, the court pronounces its judgement immediately, but most often a later time and date is announced for when the judgement will be available at the district court. The judgement will also be sent out to the parties by post.
Civil cases concerning minor amounts
Cases concerning minor amounts, up to half a base amount, are decided by a single judge and the possibilities of receiving compensation for one's court costs are limited. Otherwise, the case is generally administered in the same manner as described above.
If you are dissatisfied with the district court's judgement, you can appeal the judgement to the court of appeal, but a review permit is required for the court of appeal to try the case again in its entirety.
The courts can provide general information of a rather formal nature. For instance, they can explain how you should complete a summons application and generally describe how legal proceedings are handled.
The courts do not give legal advice. You should refer to an attorney's office (advokat) if you wish to have, for instance, advice.
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