- Can I make deductions for costs incurred prior to the business start-up?
Deductions for costs which arose before the company was established are only allowed for sole traders, not for trading partnerships, limited companies or economic associations.
As a sole trader, you may make deductions for your costs in the year of the business start-up and the year before. The costs must be associated with the business. It is up to you to prove that the costs are associated with the business.
- Can I subsequently change the information I submitted about the company's profit?
If during the course of the year you discover your operating profit will be higher or lower than initially stated in your notification of tax and contributions liability, you should submit a change notification to the Swedish Tax Agency. Otherwise, you may be liable for tax arrears or may pay too much tax during the year. If you have overpaid, this will be paid back when your preliminary tax is reconciled against your final tax. You can submit a change notification on a preliminary tax return.
- How do I apply for F-tax?
You register your business by applying to the Swedish Tax Agency for F-tax.
You can apply for F-tax via our e-services (only available in Swedish). You must have a Swedish identity number and a Swedish e-identification (e-legitimation in Swedish).
Otherwise, you can apply for F-tax by sending in the form "Företagsregistrering" (SKV 462).
Go to e-services to apply for F-tax (in Swedish)
Read more about F-tax at the Swedish Tax Agency
- How do I calculate operating profit?
To calculate the operational profit there are a number of circumstances to consider. Among other things the calculation differs depending on type of entity. You can get a roughly preliminary result by deducting expense from income.
For sole traders and partners in trading partnerships:
- Calculate your operating profit by deducting expense from income.
- Deduct a standard allowance of 25 percent of the profit.
- The remaining 75 percent is your profit and this counts as taxable income in your business. Partners in a trading or limited partnership are taxed on their own share of the business.
Bear in mind that tax allocation reserves and other closing provisions can affect the taxable income.
- How do I report and pay tax?
The reporting and payment of taxes and contributions is determined by the legal form of business you have chosen and the size of your company's turnover.
The Swedish Tax Agency will send you special remittance slips for your tax payments. Preliminary tax is paid in equal monthly payments during the income year, normally on the 12th of the month. The size of the payments does not vary according to the results for a particular month.
Employer contributions and employees' tax deductions, and in some cases VAT too, are reported monthly on special tax returns. The form is sent to the company about one month before the deadline for its return.
- How do I report VAT?
When you apply for F-tax, depending on the company's turnover you can choose whether to report VAT to the Swedish Tax Agency once a year, quarterly or monthly in a VAT return.
- VAT for the 1st quarter (January - March) must be received by 12 May.
- VAT for the 2nd quarter (April- June) must be received by 17 August.
- VAT for the 3rd quarter (July - September) must be received by 12 November
- VAT for the 4th quarter (October - December) must be received by 12 February.
Read more about VAT
- How is a limited company or economic association taxed?
Limited companies and economic associations pay corporate tax on their profit. If you are an active owner of the company or member of the association and receive a salary for your work, you are considered to be employed. The company pays employer contributions and preliminary tax deductions on your behalf to the Swedish Tax Agency. These are deductible expenses in the company.
You may also receive a dividend from the company or association. Dividends are subject to special taxation rules, which you can read about in the Tax Agency's brochures.
Go to the Swedish Tax Agency's brochures
- How is a sole trader or partner taxed?
As a sole trader or partner in a trading or limited partnership, you pay personal contributions and municipal tax on the company's profit. Income over a certain amount is also subject to state tax.
- Is it possible to enter a profit of SEK 0 on the notification of tax and contributions liability?
If you are having trouble estimating your profit, you can enter SEK 0 on the form. It is not the Swedish Tax Agency that requires you to make a profit; this is the purpose of your own business activity. At the end of the financial year, you will be taxed on the profit generated by your business.
You can also request deferment of payment of the company's preliminary tax during the first three months in a newly established company. Notify the Swedish Tax Agency in your notification of tax and contributions liability. The deferment is not a form of tax relief; the total tax is divided up into fewer months instead.
- What is required to qualify for F-tax?
In Sweden, anyone can start a company in principle, although special rules apply in the case of minors. If you are bound by an injunction against trading (pursuant to the prohibition of trading act), are in a state of bankruptcy or have a custodian, as defined in the Children and Parents Code, you are not allowed to start a company.
Before the Swedish Tax Agency will issue you with an approval for F-tax, it must be satisfied that you are conducting business activity. If you have been approved for F-tax, you pay your own taxes and contributions to the Tax Agency.
To be approved for F-tax, you must meet the following three criteria. Your business must be:
- conducted for profit.
- What is the difference between F-tax, A-tax and FA-tax?
- F-tax is the tax paid by an entrepreneur who is a natural person or legal entity.
- A-tax is paid by a natural person or legal entity who has taxable earned income.
- You pay FA-tax if you have employment and a business. You pay A-tax on your income from employment and F-tax for your business.
- What is VAT, value added tax?
Value added tax (VAT) is a tax we pay on virtually all consumption of goods and services. As a business owner, you make this payment to the state. VAT does not count as income or expense in a company, and does not affect its results. In Sweden, VAT is referred to as "moms".
As a business owner, you pay VAT on what you sell, and include a VAT charge in the cost. You pay the difference between the VAT you charge on your sales (output VAT) and the VAT you pay on your purchases (input VAT). The general rate of VAT is 25 percent, although certain goods and services have a lower rate.
- When might the Swedish Tax Agency reject my application for F-tax?
If the business is not sufficiently independent, the Swedish Tax Agency may decide that the business activity is actually employment. Activity which is not conducted for gain is classified as hobby activity. Business of a more sporadic nature, such as the sale of a picture, does not count as business activity, and is taxed as income from capital.
The F-tax certificate may be revoked if you do not conduct business activity or fail to report or pay your taxes and contributions or submit an income tax return.